Organisational Behaviour is mostly defined as a field of study that is focused on identifying the effects which individuals, groups and the organizational structure in general have on behaviour within the organization. There are various people in every organization with a wide range of goals to achieve. Some of these are personal goals while there are also organizational goals. The products and services that each organization produces are all a result of the different behaviours of its employees. There are various tools that can be used to not only understand behaviour in organizations but to improve it so that all the component parts could work together to achieve their individual goals. This field of study has several disciplines contributing to it. Some of these include: political science, anthropology, social psychology, sociology and psychology.
Some of the models of organizational behaviour shall be examined in this article. A model is described as a technique that helps shed more light on complex things. It is a framework that explains the reasons why people behave the way they do at the work place. The models of organizational behaviour are basically grouped into four, namely: autocratic, custodial, collegial and supportive. It is important to note that though there are four different models, no organization functions exclusively on one model though there would be one or more that would be predominant.
Let me start with the autocratic
Autocratic modelThis model emphasizes power, strength and formal authority. Management places focus more on controlling their employees and do not recognize their ideas or contributions except if they are asked for it. In this model, those who are at leadership positions possess the necessary expertise and skills while the employees have little or no specialized skills and depend fully on Management for guidance and direction in carrying out their job. Management is fully involved in the daily running of the organisation and rarely delegates the important aspects of their operations to their employees. This model affects the morale and job satisfaction of employees negatively as they do not feel valued or a part of the team. It leads to low performance on the part of employees. The people in managerial or leadership positions simply give orders and commands expecting the employees to obey without complaint. In modern day organizations, this model seems outdated because there are a lot of skilled workers and the autocratic system would lead to a lot of conflict in the workplace and reduce productivity. This model worked in the past but due to its limitations, the other models were developed to enable organizations adopt better ways to manage people in the work place.
Custodial modelThis one focuses on providing security economically for the employees in an organization by paying good living wages and other benefits that would help create employee loyalty and motivation. Some benefits such as medical allowances, welfare packages official vehicles and other incentives are provided in order to attract and retain employees. In some cases, provision is made for a day care centre within the premises to cater for the needs of employees. These benefits make employees more committed and dependent on the organization. They are generally loyal and t his would enable the organization maintain a growing pool of skilled and motivated employees. This is in turn would ensure that the organization has competitive advantage through the expertise and experience of their employees. The downside with this model is that employees who perform below expectations may also be retained. Under this model, Management tries to ensure that the needs of its employees are met. Employees are very satisfied and dependent on the organization because it takes care of most of their needs. The organisation now becomes the custodian of their employees. There is also a
downside to this model. It is observed that rather than increasing productivity level, employees seem to produce below or maintain certain levels. They become complacent or de-motivated to increase output and this agrees with some research work done that shows that satisfied employees are not necessarily the most productive.
Collegial modelThis model is centered on team work and the entire organisation's corporate culture needs to be aligned to achieve this. It refers to a group of people who are pursuing a common goal. It speaks more about team and group work. Everyone in the organization is involved and must be reminded that under this model, it is not about status or job titles but team work. Management of the organization does all they can do to encourage team work and foster oneness among her employees. They are able to help their employees focus on the overall performance of the team rather than only their own personal goals. It is a very effective model used by organizations who desire to discover new approaches to how their various processes can be improved. They endeavor to make their employees view themselves as partners rather than just people working for a salary. This in turn builds a sense of ownership in the minds of the employee that makes them feel needed and useful. The employees see Management as partners and not just superiors or bosses. This model develops discipline and a sense of responsibility in the employees. It produces good results and improved employee-Management relations.
Supportive modelThe next one is the supportive model which is mainly focused around leadership. It does not emphasis control or using incentives to influence employees rather it is used to motivate employees by treating them right. It emphasizes the point that employees are self motivated and are willing to contribute to the overall growth of the organization. It creates a conducive and positive environment that would motivate employees. In this model, their ideas and initiatives are encouraged and the organization implements them. This gives employees a sense of belonging. Management understands that employees only develop a passive and uninterested approach to their job when there is bad leadership. They understand that when encouraged and provided with what is due them, employees take on responsibility and develop great zeal to contribute their best to the organisation. Management does all it can to support their employees.
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